**Methods of Effective Conjugation of Antigens to Nanoparticles as Non-Inflammatory Vaccine Carriers**

*in vivo*responses in order to elucidate an immunological mechanism, however their poor statistical analysis of the resulting data leaves little in the way of conclusions.

Before I get to that, another issue I had with their data
was an odd regression curve used to determine concentration from absorbance
(Figure 3). In the adjacent figure, the authors used what appear to be serial
dilutions of nanoparticles to generate a regression between optical density
(OD) at 248 nm and the number of nanoparticles per mL. While their R

^{2}value is especially high, as would be expected for a serial dilution, there are no error bars on the points or indications of the number of replicates performed. More seriously, however, is the regression equation they use. In drawing a correlation between the number of nanoparticles in units of 10^{13}/mL and the optical density, both numbers with one significant figure, it seemed odd that their regression equation would have an intercept with 4 significant figures, leading me to question the value of their equation and its corresponding R^{2}value. Additionally, the fact that serial dilutions of a solution would have linearly decreasing absorbance values is not necessarily novel or informative, and this figure could have been put in the supplemental information.
More statistically egregious, however, is their table of
multiplexed, cytokine-bead array results, expressed as pg/mL (Tables 3 and 4):

[1] Xiang SD, Wilson K,
Day S, Fuchsberger M, Plebanski M. Methods of effective conjugation of antigens
to nanoparticles as non-inflammatory vaccine carriers. Methods 2013;60:232-41.

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