For example, "Optogenetic photoinhibition of the locus coeruleus decreased the amplitude of the target-evoked P3 potential in virally transduced animals (P = 0.012), but not in control animals (P = 0.3)."
Recently we were taught about how two use a two-way repeated measures ANOVA to assess main effects. In this example, one should have performed this analysis and then looked to see if there was a significant interaction between the two factors here: viral group and photoinhibition status. However, this example of bad statistics, instead, compares p-values representative of main effects, only. Here, P=0.012 represents the asterisk above the bar graphs showing reduced P3 amplitude in virally transduced mice. This asterisk does NOT indicate that the difference is a significant interaction. In other words, it does not indicate that P3 amplitude is significantly reduced by photo inhibition in the virally transduced mice, and not the control mice.